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电动汽车根本就不能减低污染
Electric vehicle is not green




在过去的十年中,电动汽车被吹捧为零排放(二氧化碳)的运输工具。安省前自由党政府在2010年推出了购买电动汽车的刺激计划,以鼓励安省百姓购买电动汽车。新当选的进步保守党在2018年上台后取消了该计划。

Over the past decade, electric vehicles have been touted as a zero-emissions (of carbon gases) transportation device. In Ontario, the Electrical Vehicle (EV) incentive program was introduced by the then Liberal government in 2010 to encourage Ontarians to buy these vehicles. This program was cancelled by the newly elected Progressive Conservative government when they took power in 2018.



联邦政府在2019年预算中制定了向加拿大人购买电动汽车的人提供回扣的政策。这些回扣将使电动汽车的购车成本降低5,000加元,电动混合汽车购车成本降低2500加元,但此政策只适用于价格低于45,000加元的电动汽车。

The Federal government, through its 2019 budget, provides rebates to Canadians to buy electrical vehicles. These rebates will take up to $5,000 off the cost of electric vehicles, and $2,500 off plug-in hybrids, but they initially applied only to cars that cost less than $45,000.



百姓们一直被告知电动车是“绿色”和“干净”的。对于那些不了解电动汽车工作原理的人来说,这个说法很容易被接受。我们都知道汽油或柴油引擎会排放二氧化碳,电动机不会排放任何气体。然而,我们还必须意识到,今天的内燃引擎汽车排放的污染仅占他们在20世纪60年代所排污染的1%,并且新的创新继续改善这些引擎的效率和排放清洁度。

The public has always been told that electrical vehicles are “green” and “clean”. For those who do not examine this projected image of the electric vehicle in details, buying into the idea is easy. We all know that internal combustion engines burning gas or diesel will have carbon gas emissions and electrical motors do not emit any gases. However, we must also be aware that today’s vehicles emit only about 1 percent of the pollution of what they did in the 1960s, and new innovations continue to improve those engines’ efficiency and cleanliness.


 
人们也倾向于忽视电动汽车所依赖的电力是如何产生的。虽然美国正在向可再生能源迈进,但它仍然在很大程度上依赖天然气和煤炭来发电力。这意味着电动汽车在很大程度上依赖于化石燃料来运作。在安省,燃煤发电厂被淘汰,但天燃气发电厂仍然存在,以防止风力和太阳能在无风或阴天的情况下无法发电。

People also tend to ignore how electricity — what EVs run on — is made. While the U.S. is making strides toward renewable energy, it is still largely dependent on natural gas and coal for the production of electricity. This ultimately means EVs are largely dependent on fossil fuels to operate. In Ontario, coal firing plants are eliminated but gas firing generating plants still exist to supplement windmills and solar panels when they cannot produce due to windless or cloudy days.



2018年,德国慕尼黑经济研究所(IFO)的研究报告指出,电动汽车的碳排放量可能高于柴油车,原因是其所用的锂离子电池。该研究使用特斯拉Model 3为例子。特斯拉Model 3的电池组的排污量为11至15吨二氧化碳。每个电池组的使用寿命约为10年,可行驶94,000公路。该车每行一公里要排放73至98克二氧化碳(每英里116至156克二氧化碳)。如果加上为这些车辆提供电力的发电厂的二氧化碳排放量,实际的特斯拉排污量为每公里156到180克二氧化碳(每英里249和289克二氧化碳)。

A 2018 study released by the Institute for Economic Research (IFO) in Munich, Germany found driving electric cars might come with higher emissions than diesel vehicles, largely because of lithium-ion battery production. The study uses a Tesla Model 3 as an example. A battery pack for this vehicle pollutes the climate with 11 to 15 tonnes of CO2. Each battery pack has a lifespan of approximately ten years and total mileage of 94,000 would translate into 73 to 98 grams of CO2 per kilometre (116 to 156 grams of CO2 per mile). Add the CO2 emissions of the electricity from power plants that power such vehicles to the equation, and the actual Tesla emissions could be between 156 to 180 grams of CO2 per kilometre (249 and 289 grams of CO2 per mile).



德国研究人员批评欧盟将电动汽车归类为零排放汽车,称此做法为欺骗。因为电动汽车,如特斯拉3型,其产生的排放量(每公里156-180克二氧化碳)比柴油动力的奔驰C220d型(每公里141克二氧化碳)更多。奔驰的碳排放数字甚至包括生产柴油的排放量。

German researchers criticized the fact that EU legislation classifies electric cars as zero-emission cars; they call it a deception because electric cars, like the Tesla Model 3, with all the factors included, produce more emissions (156-180 grams of CO2 per kilometre) than a diesel-powered Mercedes C220d (141 grams of CO2 per kilometre). The Mercedes figure even includes emissions from producing diesel fuel.


 
风力发电的情况也一样。如果把包括用于生产风力发电机的硬件和基座的碳排放加上时,风力机组的在整个寿命期间的碳排放应该小于化石燃料发电产生的碳排放量。但是,一旦我们把电池的碳排放加进去的话,电动车辆比新的内燃引擎的碳排放要高。

Just like the case of the windmill – when carbon footprints for producing the hardware and the pedestal are included, the CO2 emissions supposedly saved throughout the life span of the equipment are actually less than that for the same amount of energy generated by a fossil fuel power plant. The electric vehicles emit more carbon gas than the new internal combustion vehicles once we add the carbon footprint for making the batteries into the equation.

俗话说“谎言重复一千遍就会成为真理”。电动汽车不是最终和绝对的解决碳排放的手段。环境保护主义者和政府将继续散布这一谬论。也许现在我们要怀疑他们的动机了。

There is a saying - “Lies repeated a thousand times becomes the truth”. Electric vehicle are not the ultimate and absolute carbon gas savers but the fallacy continues to be perpetuated by environmentalists and governments. Maybe we should start questioning their motives now?

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