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神话被揭穿:欧米伽3对抑制焦虑和抑郁的作用微不足道
Omega-3 fats found in oily fish and nuts have little or no effect on curbing anxiety and depression, reveals myth debunking research




英国每日邮报的一篇报道指出,最近有研究发现,吃富含脂肪的鱼类对改善心理疾病无济于事,由此,又一个被人推崇的饮食理念被颠覆。

欧米伽3脂肪酸因具有缓解焦虑和抑郁的功效而在全球广泛推广。

但是最近,东英吉利大学(University of East Anglia,UEA)的科学家在进行了31项临床试验后,敦促人们应该对此认知进行重新思考。科学家们发现,欧米伽3可以将患抑郁症的风险仅降低1%,对焦虑症的影响也微不足道。

这项研究有超过41,000人参与,并被分为两组。第一组通过补充鱼油来增加其欧米伽3的摄入量,另一组则保持了原有的饮食习惯不变。



在24周的时间里,研究者通过问卷调查,记录下参与者的主要指标(例如抑郁症诊断)及次要指标(例如生活质量,护理压力和自我伤害)等心理健康变化。研究得出结论,欧米伽3脂肪酸虽然有益于身体健康,但对抑郁和焦虑没有显著效果。

只有一项临床试验也提供了有关欧米伽3与焦虑之间有关联,但这一试验却没有记录使用欧米伽3前后的焦虑变化。

这个研究课题的领导人胡伯(Lee Hooper)博士呼吁,医生不必再建议他们的抑郁症和焦虑症患者服用欧米伽3。

胡伯表示:“这项大型研究系统对成千上万人进行了长期的追踪调查。在这些众多的数据中,我们没有看到欧米伽3应有的作用。研究数据始终显示,长链欧米伽3脂肪酸对抑郁症或焦虑症几乎没有什么效果,因此不建议将其作为一种治疗心理疾病的方法。”

另一位课题合作者、东英吉利大学健康科学学院的蒂恩(Katherine Deane)博士表示:“作为均衡饮食的一部分,富含脂肪的鱼类只能作为一种营养丰富的食品。但是我们发现,服用欧米伽3补充剂对预防或治疗抑郁症和焦虑症没有什么明显价值。考虑到工业化捕捞和海洋鱼类种群变化对环境的影响,以及海洋中塑料污染的盛行,继续服用鱼油补充剂似乎更加没有意义。”

该研究由世界卫生组织资助,并发表在《英国精神病学杂志》上。



而在2016年,来自墨尔本大学和哈佛大学的研究发现,抗抑郁药和欧米伽3混着吃在改善患者情绪上要比只吃安慰剂效果好。他们认为,由于欧米伽3可以轻松穿过大脑细胞膜,因此能与大脑中和情绪有关的分子相互作用。脂肪酸还具有抗炎作用,研究人员认为这也许是缓解抑郁症状的一个原因。

鱼油补充剂常识

· 什么是欧米伽3?
欧米伽3和鱼肝油胶囊均含有人体必需脂肪酸EPA和DHA。

· 什么是鳕鱼肝油?
鳕鱼肝油胶囊含有大量的维生素A和维生素D。但需要注意,维生素A过多可能对胎儿有害,因此不建议孕妇使用鱼肝油。

· 什么是磷虾油?
磷虾油是从类似虾的南极甲壳动物中提取的。它是长链欧米伽3,EPA和DHA的丰富来源,而且还包含两种强抗氧化剂,虾青素和角黄素,因而这种油具有诱人的红色。这些色素是来自磷虾为食的藻类,与火烈鸟粉红色羽毛的色素相同。欧米伽3与抗氧化剂的结合使磷虾油具有减少炎症和平衡胆固醇的功效,堪称“超级食品补充剂”。



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