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研究发现,孩子癌症确诊后会长久影响家庭成员的心理健康
Pediatric cancer can affect mental health of patients’ families long after initial diagnosis, study finds




根据环球邮报近日的报道,一项新的研究发现,患癌症儿童的父母及兄弟姐妹会在焦虑,压力和其他心理问题上苦苦挣扎,而且这种影响会持续20年之久。数据表明,被这种压抑情绪困扰的家庭成员到精神科医生就诊的比率呈上升趋势。

最近发表在《临床肿瘤学》杂志上的这项研究,对1998年至2014年在安省的4,773名母亲和7,897名兄弟姐妹的健康数据进行了调查,这些被调查者家里都有被确诊癌症的孩子。

研究发现,有罹患癌症孩子的母亲到精神科就诊的比例比一般有精神问题到门诊就诊的病患高出40%。兄弟姐妹拜访家庭医生或精神科医生的比例也要高出10%。

而且,这些高比率在儿童被诊断出患有癌症之后一直会持续20年。(研究人员无法提取父亲的数据)



这项研究的主要领导人、肿瘤专家、多伦多病童医院和非营利性临床评估科学研究所(Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences,ICES)的兼职科学家古柏塔(Sumit Gupta)表示,“家里有孩子确诊癌症后,会大大影响家庭成员的心理健康。他们产生精神疾病的可能性呈上升趋势,而且令人惊讶的是,影响的跨度是从最初诊断到以后很长的一段时间内,

古柏塔说道,“鉴于这些结果,我们实在想了解父亲们的情况。”

同时又是多伦多大学儿科系副教授的古柏塔医生继续指出,研究结果表明,有必要确保孩童癌症患者家庭成员能够获得长期心理健康方面的帮助。他说,尽管目前有一些医院为这类家庭提供支持,但这些家庭成员在孩子治疗结束后,基本很少与医院再有联系。

古柏塔医生补充道,研究者还需要找到适当的方法,当儿童癌症患者仍在治疗期间或治疗刚刚结束不久,医疗机构应怎样不间断地接触这些家庭成员,以降低他们以后出现精神健康问题的风险。



由病童医院和ICES共同领导的这项研究,使用了医院数据和出生记录来定位被诊断患有癌症儿童的母亲和兄弟姐妹。然后,研究人员核实了这些母亲和兄弟姐妹到精神科门诊就诊的次数,即出于心理健康原因去看精神病医生或家庭医生的次数,并与普通对照者的就诊次数进行了比较。他们还研究了“严重精神病事件”及其数量,主要包括精神病急诊室就诊,精神病住院,以及自杀三种情况。

研究人员发现,母亲和兄弟姐妹发生严重精神病事件的几率并不高。然而,与对照组相比,母亲到心理健康门诊次数更多,但随着时间的推移,次数并没有改变(每千人1056次/年,对照组为766次)。在幼童癌症确诊之后的大约15年内,兄弟姐妹中精神科的就诊率超过了对照组(每千人104次/年,而对照组为95次)。母亲和兄弟姐妹在精神门诊病人中有一半以上是焦虑症患者。

在蒙特利尔儿童医​​院,没有参与这项研究的儿科精神科卢梭医生(Cécile Rousseau)表示,即使兄弟姐妹可能无法完全了解患者的病情,但他们仍可以感觉到父母的焦虑,这种焦虑可以轻易地从父母的一举一动中感受得到。她鼓励这些父母向其他孩子承认自己的忧虑,告诉他们这不是得病孩子的错,父母是何等的担心他们,从而得到其他孩子们的认可。



卢梭医生继续指出:很多这样的父母都假装乐观,他们会对孩子们说,“没有关系,一切都会好起来的。”我认为这种方式会令父母非常沮丧,孩子们也同样感到沮丧。因为他们明白事情并不是父母所说的那样。

对安省密西沙加、有着三个孩子的母亲帕尔默(Antonia Palmer)而言,这项研究结果正是这个家庭的体现。她的一个孩子在完成癌症治疗的数年之后,她不是家里唯一需要面对精神问题的人。

帕尔默的长子哈德森(Nate Hudson)现在已经12岁了,他在2岁时被诊断为第4期高危神经母细胞瘤,这是一种实体瘤癌症。在其后的五年当中,他接受了密集、复杂和痛苦的治疗,虽然保住了生命,但是治疗却给他带来了长期的副作用,包括严重的听力丧失。

帕尔默说道,在整个治疗过程中,她一直试图展现自己勇敢的一面,向家人掩盖内心的恐惧,愤怒和沮丧。当治疗结束后,这些负面情绪如滔滔洪流,瞬间倾而下,无法逃避……有一天,她倒在厨房冰凉的地板上,无助的感觉让她放声痛哭。



帕尔默说,她的丈夫亚伦·哈德森(Aaron Hudson)同样患有焦虑症,虽然他们另外两个儿子、10岁的亚历克斯(Alex)和7岁的乔纳森(Jonathan)对哥哥也表现出强烈的怜悯之心,但他们幼小的心也承受着巨大的压力。

帕尔默最后说道:“后面的日子还很长,我们大家都需要勇气去面对。即使治疗结束了,但那种忧伤和痛楚永远不会消失,永远不会结束。 我们必须一直面对家有小儿患癌的事实。”



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