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新内阁新挑战




上周三小特鲁多的少数政府及其新内阁,于总督府宣誓就职。本届内阁相比上届,由35人增为37人,7名新阁员,新增两部。相比4年前,上次内阁主要是宣传点缀之花哨如大量女性、少数族裔及难民的加入,本届虽仍留有部分痕迹,但却显得较务实和稳重。因为国家的情势不如以往,面临严峻的挑战,少数政府不敢懈怠,需要实打实地团结全国,振兴经济,抑制分离主义思潮。

由于自由党在西部的席位大面积流失,本届内阁大量启用中东部的自由党干部,包括中西部一些非国会议员的人士也延揽入阁。最突出的,是前外长方惠兰被高调任命为副总理兼国内政府事务部长。副总理在加国不是一个必不可少的固定职位,通常只是总理离国期间或缺席议会时的临时性代理(故用depute一词),或为平衡执政党内重要的不同势力之安抚及酬佣。这次慎重其事地任命方惠兰为副总理,她所兼任的国内(即各省)政府事务部长,4年前原本是总理小特鲁多所兼。因为西部分离主义的思潮冒头,以及魁人政团的再次崛起,方惠兰有西部草原卡加利的乌克兰和英裔出身背景、及代表安省多伦多富人区玫瑰谷的国会议员,方惠兰具较娴熟的外交手腕,以副总理执掌国内政府事务部,表明本届政府对国内事务的谨慎和认真。或者说西部分离主义思潮及东部魁人势力的高涨,已成国家团结的头号挑战,因而亦为政府的头等大事。再说外交部长换张新面孔,也有新机会打开与中国及沙特的外交僵局。因为方惠兰,国内政府事务部将是一个实实在在的责任部门,而副总理的权位也将不同以往。



说新内阁仍留有4年前花哨作秀的痕迹,两个新部之一的“中产繁荣部”大概便是。这纯粹是政党政治及宣传作秀的伎俩,全世界的政府机构里哪听说有这种部门。Digital government 数字政府部也够新颖,用数字化、网络化系统性整体性来处理政府事务,这本该是总理办公室PMO下面的一个技术性单位才是,如今提高到内阁部门的地位。一是新政府有新潮意识,或也许是个过家家的游戏;二恐怕是避免PMO 如过去王洲迪事件那样遭诟病而直接牵扯总理本人,数字政府部可以部分成为挡箭牌。

因为落选联邦议席,曾戴头巾的那位原公车司机先生自然不能再是基建部长。但为了平衡政府内的西部代表成分,原国际贸易部长温尼伯议员Jim Carr 任平原省份总理特别代表,表明新政府为应对西部分离Wexit,在方惠兰之外而加上双保险。尽管日前媒体有将Wexit 软化为West Alienation 西部疏远的倾向,但正如上周安省福特省长与小特鲁多会晤时强调,总理该认真聆听西部声音,切实解决西部困难发展经济。福特直言支持西部,但基于国家团结,其中道和老练直令西部保守党势力的康尼相形见绌。在这场维护国家团结的角逐中,福特的安省举足轻重,顺势要联邦加快加大资助安省的基建亦顺理成章。



西部的石油业有今日之光景,乃多年积累的结果。几十年前西部就从安省等地大量引入各类人才,西部已强化自我体系,以油砂业为基点进行扩张。由于美国不让修跨美油管(老美石油自给足够),西部只能指望横山输油管开通往太平洋亚洲售卖石油。因环保的因素,西部把前联邦保守党政府遗留的难题交到了自由党政府手里,并逼迫联邦自由党政府强闯卑斯省政府及土著的这一关。西部不仅着眼于太平洋出海口,还打算向东建立整个国家的能源通道,以形成执掌全国的经济战略布局。横山输油管项目国家须综合考虑环境保护和经济发展的平衡,至于能源东输通道则更是如此。魁省已明确表示不乐见石油东输管道,表明东西部将围绕此题作长期较量。正如笔者认为西部分离是假议题,康尼及联邦保守党尚不敢公开打出分离的旗号,只能以此要挟。西部分离及加国东西集团的博弈,是个长期的过程,其前期的交手点在经济利益层面。正因为争端尚在经济层面,政治上尚未完全撕破脸,所以这个舞台很适合善于谈判斡旋的方惠兰。应该说小特鲁多走了一步好棋,也正逐渐走向成熟。如方惠兰不负所望,将来小特鲁多离任,联邦自由党岂不有个现成的接班人选么。



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