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想投资赚钱?先看看这五种投资成本对你回报的影响





一场投资管理收费战将美国的在线经纪佣金降至零。这场收费战转移了投资者对投资成本关注的视线,忽视了那些与投资回报有关的更重要的成本。

投资行业对手之间竞争降低费用从来都不是一件坏事,但有时这是一场擦边鼓。经纪佣金就是一个典型的例子。加拿大证券行收取投资者每次股票买卖的佣金一般为9.99元,除非你做短线,交易频繁,否则买卖佣金对你投资回报的影响可以忽略不计。

今天你也许关心的话题:

六个问题帮您回顾2019年 六个问题帮您展望2020年
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想要阅读与本文有关的话题?请点击本文末的链接!



当然,你还是要知道你的股票经纪行的买卖佣金究竟是多少。加拿大的低佣金经纪行包括帝国银行的Investor's Edge,汇丰的InvestDirect,Interactive Brokers,Questrade和Virtual Brokers,这些公司的佣金明显低于大银行下属的经纪行。10月15日,国家银行直接经纪行(National Bank Direct Brokerage)推出了一项新的收费标准,为18至30岁的年轻投资者提供每年10次免费交易,超过10次后每次交易仅收费4.95元。如果你已经是国家银行的客户并有该行Direct Brokerage 投资账户,你的交易佣金每次才6.95元交易。正常情况下你得付9.95元的交易费。

不过,选择股票经纪行时不要只看佣金。还有其他五种费用会直接影响你投资组合的回报。

1. 兑换货币的收费
兑换外币向你收取的费用是在线经纪行的摇钱树。投资者将加元打到他们的帐户中,并由经纪行将其转换为美元,以购买在美国上市的股票和交易所交易基金。对于这项服务,经纪行从大型投资机构手中以低价购买美元,加价后将美元卖给你而获得可观的利润。

为了更新我的在线经纪排名,我要求经纪行提供特定日期用加币购买美元的汇率记录。这些经纪行的兑换汇率可以比加拿大央行公布的汇率高出1.5%。



解决窍门:使用TSX上市的ETF来购买美国股票。通过这种方式进入美国市场,你可以利用ETF公司获得的优惠汇率。这比散户投资者兑换的汇率要好。如果你通过注册退休储蓄计划,注册退休收入基金或免税储蓄帐户投资美国股票,你要让经纪提供美元与加币兑换的文件(非注册帐户都有这些文件)。在加拿大的RRSP,RRIF或TFSA帐户中如含有美国股票,这些股票抛售后会自动将美元兑换成加元,并向你收取费用。另一种办法是一种先进的技术将加元转换为美元,此手段称为Norbert’s Gambit。

2. 管理费,帐号维护费,账户里钱不多的收费或账户几乎很少交易的收费
目前,如果你账户里钱不多或账户几乎很少交易,经纪行将向你收标准费用,通常是每季度25元或30元。有些经纪行只对现金帐户收这种费用,有些则对所有帐户收此费用。

一些经纪行还对账户里的10,000至25,000元的RRSP和RRIF收取100元的年度管理费。



为了避免向经纪行交维护费,你可以让经纪行定期从你的现金账户里取款到投资账户里,或买卖几次股票来避免交维护费。试想一下,如果$ 12,000的投资帐户一年里支付了$ 100元的费用,这相当于你的投资回报减少了0.83%。

解决窍门:如果你刚开始投资或投资账户里钱不多,你要向经纪问清楚

(a)你可能要支付的维护,闲置或管理费用是多少

(b)你可以采取哪些步骤来避免这些费用。别在发现了经纪行在你的账户里扣这些费用后才去找他们。

3. ETF费用
拥有基本指数来ETF投资组合的收费几乎为零。对于加拿大股票基金而言,经纪行的收费低至约0.06%。但是,随着用这种投资方式投资的人越来越多,ETF行业引入了投资策略更复杂的新产品,手续费为0.5%至0.7%或更高。



我们在这里谈论的是管理费用比率(MER),这是拥有基金收你费用的最重要指标。你还必须警惕交易费用比率或TER (trading expense ratio),该比率可以告诉你基金交易投资组合中的证券所产生的费用。基本的指数追踪ETF交易不足以达到TER,你会看到它表示为零。但如果ETF交易频繁,这足以让你产生明显的TER费用。如果有TER,请将其添加到MER中,以了解你究竟给经纪行多少钱来管理你的投资组合。

TER在所有基金和互惠基金的基金业绩管理报告中列出。你可以通过在经济行的网站上查ETF的资料链接来找到ETF的管理报告。打开管理报告后,看看他们的收费“费率”是多少。

解决窍门:在购买收费高的ETF之前,你要看看那些廉价的基本ETF和基本股指的基金的收费,以决定高价的ETR是否值得买。始终检查那些买卖频繁的TER,或用筛选机制来了解买卖成本。查看投资组合管理报告时,看看MER和TER的五年收费图标,确认MER不断下降且TER持续较低的基金。

4.互惠基金费用
值得注意的是,到明年3月份,所有投资者有350亿的互惠基金分散在线经纪行手里,除非你拥有D系列的基金,否则你很可能会支付大笔互惠基金管理费。 D系列基金是为那些自己管理互惠基金而设立的。这些投资者要么不想要经纪行的投资建议,要么是经纪行不给他们建议。他们的MERs费用低于标准基金,因为自己管理大大减少了支付给金融顾问和经纪行的费用,行业称其为基金跟踪佣金(trailing commissions)。



跟踪佣金可占互惠基金MER的0.5%至1个百分点,因此对你的投资回报影响很大。如果你自己管理互惠基金,把它降下来很重要,因为政府监管机构禁止在线经纪行向这类投资者提供服务和建议。你不付钱,自然也就得不到服务。

在线经纪行通常会认为客户下订单时是购买D系列资金,前提是他们代理这样的基金。经纪行通常会采取措施,使长期持有资金的客户转向D系列。不过,有些投资者仍有可能在自己管理的投资组合里拥有带跟踪佣金的常规基金。

解决窍门:坚持使用D系列基金,或购买那些没有跟踪佣金的佣金低的互惠基金的基金。这类互惠基金包括Mawer,Leith Wheeler,Steadyhand和GBC。另外,请检查你多年来拥有的所有基金,以确认你没有付高佣金的收跟踪佣金的基金。

5.转账和调用投资的费用
如果你从注册退休储蓄账户里取钱而不是彻底关闭账户,经纪行通常会收取大约50元。对于注册退休收入基金(RRIF)上,大多数经纪行可以让你免费定期提款,如果你不定期取款,他们将收取25或50元的额外提款费用。迄今为止,从免税储蓄账户(TFSA)提款似乎没有任何费用。

当你将帐户转移到另一家投资公司时,经纪行将收取很高的的转账费。金额从$125元到$150元不等。

解决窍门:将帐户转到另一家公司之前,要求新经纪行吞下转移基金户头的费用。



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