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向房产主征收附加税是对靠以投资房产谋生的加国新移民的不公(观点、中英对照)
Proposed homeowner surtax unfair to immigrant homeowners

随着加拿大住房负担能力危机的加剧,对房产主的财富征收附加税的需求越来越强烈。 为了解决经济适用房供应不足的问题,加拿大房贷抵押公司CMHC提出了一个“适度”的房产主附加税率,从价值 100 万元至 150 万元的房屋的 0.2% 到价值 200 万元以上的房屋的 1% 不等。 很多住房专家支持这一举措,认为要求对那些在呼呼大睡中就财源滚滚的“新石油大亨”征收暴利税并不离谱。 然而,这项房屋附加税是对依靠购置房产在加国苦苦谋生的移民人口的不公正的惩罚。

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The demand for a surtax on the homeowners' wealth has gained traction as Canada's housing affordability crisis grows. To address the undersupply of affordable housing, CMHC has proposed a "modest" tax rate ranging from 0.2 percent on homes valued between $1 million to $1.5 million to 1% on homes valuing $ 2 million and above. Housing experts support the move, believing it is not outrageous to demand a windfall tax on "new oil barons" who have gained real estate profits while they sleep. However, the proposed surtax would punish the immigrant population, dealing unfair blows to those who resorted to climbing the housing ladder to seek financial security in their adopted country.

许多新移民为在新国度上摆脱经济困境并寻求财务保障而将目光投向房地产。 1999 年至 2016 年加拿大住房统计计划 (CHSP) 的数据揭示了移民家庭将资产侧重分配于购置房屋的偏好。 1999年,不到三分之一的新移民家庭拥有自己的房屋。 到 2016 年,这些家庭的住房拥有率已经赶上并超过了土生土长的加拿大人。 他们将资金投入房地产的决定使那些长期移民的总财富价值超过了在加拿大出生的人。 平均而言,移民家庭财富增长的 69% 来自于房屋净值的增加,而加拿大本土出生的人这一比例仅为 39%。



Many newcomers look to real estate for financial security as they struggle to establish a financial footing in the new land. Data from Canadian Housing Stats Program (CHSP) from 1999 to 2016 sheds light on immigrant families' preference to allocate their assets in housing. In 1999, less than one-third of recent immigrant families owned their own homes. By 2016, homeownership rates for those families had caught up and exceeded that of the native-born Canadians. Established immigrants have seen the total wealth value surpassing those born in Canada, resulting from their decision to put money into real estate. On average, 69 percent of the wealth increase for immigrant families came from the gains in home equity, compared to 39 percent for native-born Canadians.

但在房价飙升的背后隐藏着许多移民家庭在加拿大劳动力市场上面对低收入和系统性歧视的心酸。 加拿大住房统计计划 的数据显示,一个购置中值为 $763,000 元之房屋的典型移民买家的年收入中位数仅为 $11,100 元,明显低于购置中值为$396,000 元房屋的年入为$32,300 元的加国出生买家的中位数收入。 国外文凭不被认可以及种种社会和经济困境阻碍了移民融入加拿大工作场所并获得与加拿大同行同等的薪水。 根据 StatsCan 的数据,加拿大移民的小时工资平均值比在加拿大出生的同龄人低五分之一,且自 2006 年以来,这种工资差距在个省份不断扩大。



But lurking behind the soaring property prices are many immigrant families' struggles with low income and systemic discrimination in the Canadian labor market. CHSP data shows that a typical immigrant buyer with a median value of $763,000 home had a median annual income of just $11,100, remarkably lower than the $32,300 median income of a Canadian-born buyer who owned just a $396,000 home. Unrecognized foreign credentials and social and economic barriers have prevented immigrants from integrating into the Canadian workplace and earning a salary on par with their Canadian counterparts. According to StatsCan, the hourly wages of landed immigrants in Canada are, on average, one-fifth lower than those of their Canadian-born peers, with the wage disparity increasing steadily since 2006 across all provinces in Canada.

加拿大住房统计计划(CHSP) 数据还显示出移民家庭在购房后所面临财务压力。 移民家庭投入注册养老金计划中的资产份额仅为加拿大本土人的50%,毫无疑问这将限制他们退休后的收入来源。 移民家庭的抵押贷款额也比加拿大出生的家庭更高,移民家庭2016年的债务收入比为 2.17,而 加拿大出生的家庭中该比例仅为 1.32。不断上升的通货膨胀和利率飙升给移民家庭带来了更大的财务压力,使许多人放弃了从度假到外出就餐等人人向往的娱乐支出以支付抵押贷款。 毫无疑问,是沉重的债务支出和经济上所做的牺牲为移民持有住房铺平了道路。



CHSP data has revealed immigrant families' financial squeeze after purchasing a home. The asset share in the registered pension plans for immigrant families was only 50 percent of the native Canadians, which would restrain their income source in retirement. Immigrant families also carry larger mortgages than the Canadian-born, with a debt-to-income ratio of 2.17 for immigrants in 2016 compared with 1.32 for Canadian-born families. The rising inflation and interest rates hikes have put more financial strains on their family budget, forcing many to forgo spending on the much-coveted entertainments to carve out rooms for mortgage payments – from vacation to dining out. Undoubtedly, heavy debt load and financial sacrifices have paved the path to immigrants' homeownership.

新移民的住房财富增值可能成为嫉妒的目标,但他们为此付出了巨大的艰辛已使他们无力面对更多的经济和精神上的压力。 这笔所谓向获得“意外之财”的房主征收的附加税是给那些为了能在加拿大过上稳定生活而以超常血汗和泪水购房的新移民的伤口上撒盐,并加剧他们在该国已遭受的经济歧视和不平等。



Newcomers' housing wealth gains can be the target of envy, but their behind-the-scene struggles are substantial, leaving them more vulnerable to financial and psychological stress. This windfall homeowners surtax would inflict more wounds on those who have paid blood, sweat, and tears to buy a home and earn a stable life in Canada, exacerbating the economic inequality they've already suffered in the country.

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