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加国经济(中英对照):供应中断危机如何影响家庭账簿开销
Amid inflation concerns, consumers navigate price ups and downs affecting family budget

 
新冠疫情给我们生活的方方面面造成严重影响,其中供应链中断给经济造成的影响为最大。因原材料和零件供应暂停以及劳动力短缺造成生产线中断,制造业产出严重受阻。由于封城措施导致全球运输业造成重创,进口商也难以将货品运往加拿大。制造业的困扰使消费者面临商品短缺,高通涨以及生活支出成本上升的困境。今年10月份,消费指数飙升至4.7%, 为18年来最高,汽油价格上涨了42%。 但不同行业所受到的供应链中断之影响不同,因此不同类商品物价指数变化迥异,使消费者各项支出也受到不同的程度的影响。
 
Covid 19 has upended various aspects of our lives, with supply chain disruptions causing the most severe economic impacts. Manufacture outputs dwindled as raw materials and part supplies paused and as production lines choked up on labor shortages. Importers struggled to move goods to Canada as lockdowns dealt a heavy blow on global shipping. The disruptions have left consumers grappling with product shortages, rising inflation, and growing living costs. CPI reached 4.7% in Oct., the highest level in 18 years, with gasoline prices soaring by 42 percent. But impacts of the disruptions vary across the industry sectors, as consumers navigate the price ups and downs in different commodity categories that affect their family budget.

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供应链中断对食品行业产生了重大影响,导致食品价格飙升。消毒和个人防护装备的成本、运输链不畅、生产效率下降以及工厂关闭造成的中断对食品供应造成了沉重打击。肉制品,尤其是牛肉和小牛肉,价格涨幅最大。虽然从化肥到包装材料等肉类供应链种多方面的成本都在上升,但随着加工厂的关闭以及农民通过宰杀牛和牲畜来缩减产量,加拿大的肉类生产能力不断萎缩。随之而来的是价格上涨,牛肉产品价格同比上涨20.1%,超过猪肉(14.1%)、鸡肉(8.8%)、鱼和海鲜(11%)、鸡蛋(11.6%)。
 
The supply chain disruptions have significantly impacted the food sector, sending food prices to soar. The cost of sanitation and PPE, transportation bottlenecks, decreased efficiency, and disruption due to closure has taken a heavy toll on the food supply. Meat products, particularly beef and veal, have seen the sharpest price growth. While the costs in every aspect of the meat supply chain – from fertilizers to packaging materials rise, the nation's meat production capability has dwindled as processing plants shut down and as farmers scaled back output by culling cattle and livestock. The price hike of beef products by 20.1% over the same time last year has outpaced that of pork (14.1%), chicken (8.8%), fish and seafood (11%), and eggs (11.6%).
 
根据加拿大《2022年食品价格报告》,2022年加拿大的食品价格将继续攀升,总体价格将上涨5%至7%。该报告预测,比如夫妻二人带一子一女的典型的四口之家,将支付高达$14767.36元的食品费用,比2021年的年度总成本增加$966.08元。推动食品整体价格增长(5%至7%)的将是乳制品和餐馆(6%至8%)以及蔬菜(5到7%)。
 
Food prices in Canada will continue to climb in 2022, with the overall prices increasing by 5 to 7 percent, according to Canada's Food Price Report 2022. It predicts that a typical family of four, including a man, a woman, a boy, and a girl, will pay up to $14767.36 for food, a $966.08 increase from the total annual cost of 2021. Driving the overall price growth (5 to 7%) will be the dairy and restaurants (at 6 to 8%) and vegetables at 5 to 7%.

 
除了较高的运输和劳动力成本外,由东南亚爆发德尔塔疫情引发的计算机芯片短缺也加剧了汽车和家电行业的供应链危机。制造商因无法购得现代电子产品和汽车的核心的半导体配件而延长装配厂停工时间和限制了汽车制造产量。结果,加拿大的轻型汽车产量在8月份比去年同期下降了38%。尽管制造商和经销商努力吸收上涨的成本,消费者还是感到价格上涨的压力,最终不得不高价买单。根据 StatsCan提供的消费指数报告,9月份汽车价格同比上涨7.2%,乘用车价格上涨6.1%。与此同时,家用电器价格上涨5.2%。
 
Apart from higher shipping and labor costs, the shortage of computer chips—caused by Delta outbreaks in Southeast Asia has fueled the supply chain crisis in the motor vehicle and home appliances sector. Manufacturers struggle to get their hands on semiconductors – the heart of modern electronics and cars, causing downtime at assembly plants to extend and automakers to curb the output. As a result, light vehicle production in Canada tumbled 38% from the last year in Aug. Despite the manufacturer's and dealers' efforts to absorb the rising costs, it inflicted a material impact on consumer wallets, leaving them to feel the pinch as price rises ultimately. According to CPI by StatsCan, vehicle prices jumped by 7.2 percent in Sept. over the same time last year, and passenger cars rose 6.1% in Oct. Meanwhile, household appliances increased by 5.2%.
 
因石油生产商无力填补劳动力、车辆和设备短缺,供应链障碍威胁到石油产量,导致能源价格迅速飙升。汽油和天然气价格跃升至历史新高,让家庭能源支出也随之上涨。 10月份,能源价格比去年上涨了26%,其中天然气飙升了19%,加拿大部分地区的汽油零售价超过每升1.50元。
 
Supply chain snags threaten oil output as producers struggle to fill the labor, vehicle, and equipment shortages, resulting in a rapid surge in energy prices. Gasoline and natural gas prices jumped to an all-time high, putting intense upward pressure on household energy bills. In October, energy prices climbed by 26% over last year, with natural gas soaring by 19% and the retail price of gasoline in Canada fetching over $1.50 a liter in some parts of the country.

 
但并非所有消费领域都屈服于供应链危机带来的通涨压力。服装和鞋类的价格就没有随着普遍的价格上涨而水涨船高,11月份仅比去年同期上涨0.7%,与整体通涨飙升的4.7%形成鲜明对比。服装价格比疫情两年前的水平下降了1.6%,这要归功于服装材料价格的急剧下降。事实上,与任何其他行业一样,服装行业也面临着从离岸生产线的关闭和棉花成本上涨到运输价格飙升和疫情导致的延误等各种供应链挑战。然而,成本上升导致的价格飙升往往仅维持在低位百分点,完全不足以扭转数十年的价格下跌。
 
But not all consumption areas have succumbed to the inflationary pressure caused by the supply chain crisis. The price of clothing and footwear has resisted a widespread price increase, rising just 0.7% in Nov. from a year earlier – a sharp contrast to 4.7% of an overall inflation spike. Apparel prices dropped by 1.6% from the pre-pandemic level two years ago – thanks to the steep decline in the prices of clothing materials. Indeed, the apparel industry, like any other industry, has also been contented with various supply challenges – from the shutdown of offshore production lines and rising cotton costs to surging transportation prices and pandemic-related delays. However, the price spikes from the rising costs tend to run in low single-digit percentages, hardly enough to reverse decades of deflation.
 
尽管全球都在努力解决供应链问题,但分析师认为通涨将持续到2022年晚些时候。因此消费者要做好准备,迎接更持久通涨浪潮的袭击。
 
Despite efforts to solve supply chain issues, analysts believe inflation will continue until later in 2022. Buckle up and brace for more persistent inflation headwinds this year. 
 
    

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